Chinese and Indian military strategists such as Sun-Tzu and Chanakya contain information on deception and espionage . Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya Empire in India, used assassinations, spies and secret agents. The ancient Egyptians had a thoroughly developed system for the acquisition of intelligence, and the Hebrews used spies as well, as in the story of Rahab. Spies were also prevalent in the Greek and Roman empires. During the 13th and 14th centuries. Feudal Japan often used ninja to gather intelligence. Many modern espionage methods were well established even then. Aztecs used Pochtecas, people in charge of commerce, as spies and diplomats, and had diplomatic immunity. Along with the pochteca, before a battle or war, secret agents, quimitchin, were sent to spy amongst enemies usually wearing the local costume and speaking the local language, techniques similar to modern secret agents.

Leave a Reply.